Methods for water purification

Ways to Purify Water

Water purification is the process of eliminating contamination from water such as suspended gases and solids, biological contaminants and undesirable chemicals. Purification of water is done to make it useable for many purposes such as for domestic use and industrial use. It is also done to make water potable.

Some water purification techniques


a.       Aeration: It is sprayed into air to increase the content of oxygen; it breaks down odors, and helps in balance of dissolved gases. It is expensive.

b.      Ozone: It is known as one of the good bactericides and helps to kill microorganisms through oxygen molecules which are charged.


2.      Boiling

To purify water boiling is one of the safest modes. Boil water for 3-5 minutes and let evaporate some of the water.


3.      Disinfection

Bleach is one of the chemicals used for purifying water in household. Bleach which contains 5.25 percent of sodium hypochlorite should be used. 16 drops of bleach should be put in per gallon of water, stirred and allowed to be stood up for 30 minutes. This procedure should be repeated for 15 minutes till water does not smell of bleach.


4.      Distillation

Distillation is the process of purifying water by boiling and then collecting the vapors and finally condensing it again into water. Salt and other impurities are not contained in condensed vapors.


For the purpose of distillation, a halfway pot should be filled with water, a cup should be tied to the handle on the pot’s lid as cup will hung right side up then boil water for minimum 20 minutes. Water which drips out form the lid into cup is distilled water.


5.      Chemicals

Iodine tablets are one of the many methods of purification. These are very effective in killing little bugs which are lightweight and ultra small. 30 minutes are needed for realizing its full potential.


6.      Ceramic Filters

It is beneficial for removing Giardia lambia, Cryptosporidium and other impurities. The sample water is forced to pour via ceramic filters, thereby eliminating the impurities.


7.      Copper-Zinc System

It is also a method for distillation of water and deploys zinc alloy and copper for the same. Zinc and copper molecules act as different poles on a battery. Water which is contaminated passes through granules and other contaminants go towards the zinc. A different charge migrates to the copper. Bacteria and many other organisms are killed by additional chemical reactions which take place inside the apparatus.


8.      Reverse Osmosis

Water is forced to pass through a semi-permeable synthetic membrane in Reverse Osmosis. This process was originally used to transform saltwater into freshwater. 90 to 98 percent of viruses, bacteria, heavy metals and many other organisms, inorganic and organic chemicals can be removed by RO systems but it is to be used in right conditions.


9.      Carbon Filters

Carbon filtering is one of the oldest and most economical methods for purification of water. Activated carbon is utilized in many carbon filters and water passes easily through the active carbon. This provides unbelievably large surface area for water flow. It is more effective in absorbing contaminants as water takes long time to pass through block carbon.

Some of these processes can be employed at your homes for providing clean drinking water. For other, you may consult the water department at your local neighborhood. It is imperative that water must be purified before consumption for health benefits.